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Academia-van-der-Waag-Cowling2134862/12/2021 8:22:00 AMthe provision of military and security cyber products and services by ‘cyber mercenaries’ and its human rights impact Defining Cyber Mercenaries STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FAcademia%2Dvan%2Dder%2DWaag%2DCowling%2Edocx&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FAcademia%2Dvan%2Dder%2DWaag%2DCowling%2Edocx&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/CyberMercenaries47120https://www.ohchr.org2/12/2021 8:22:00 AMdocxFalsedocx11~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js
Academia-Krieg21348512/28/2020 12:46:00 PMan infamous example of how former cyber operatives from US and other Western governmental institutions were hired as ‘cyber mercenaries’ to provide Abu Dhabi with STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FAcademia%2DKrieg%2Edoc&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FAcademia%2DKrieg%2Edoc&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/CyberMercenaries2330https://www.ohchr.org12/28/2020 12:46:00 PMdocFalsedoc11~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js
Cyber Mercenaries: Review of the Cyber and Intelligence PMSC Market2134832/12/2021 1:40:00 AMwe consider the actors who carry out cyber and intelligence operations, it may be best to avoid the term "cyber mercenaries" (Maurer 2018; McMurdo 2016), or at least STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FAcademia%5FSwed%5FBurland%2Edocx&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FAcademia%5FSwed%5FBurland%2Edocx&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/CyberMercenaries1040https://www.ohchr.org2/12/2021 1:40:00 AMdocxFalsedocx11~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js
Submission to the Working Group on Mercenaries2134844/10/2021 11:29:00 AMthe type of relationships they may have with them; and b) “cyber mercenaries” and other actors operating alone or through PMSCs in cyber space The reasons why both state and STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FAcademia%2DCENS%2Edocx&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FAcademia%2DCENS%2Edocx&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/CyberMercenaries1930https://www.ohchr.org4/10/2021 11:29:00 AMdocxFalsedocx11~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js
ICT2134962/18/2021 1:24:00 PMThis entails a wide range of military the type of relationships they may have with them; and b) “cyber mercenaries” and other actors operating alone or through PMSCs in cyber space STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FICT%2Edoc&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FICT%2Edoc&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/CyberMercenaries4430https://www.ohchr.org2/18/2021 1:24:00 PMdocFalsedoc11~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js
Cyprus-Digital-Security-Authority2134922/12/2021 4:05:00 PMPlease note that we have provided the type of relationships they may have with them; and b) “cyber mercenaries” and other actors operating alone or through PMSCs in cyber space STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FCyprus%2DDigital%2DSecurity%2DAuthority%2Edocx&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FCyprus%2DDigital%2DSecurity%2DAuthority%2Edocx&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/CyberMercenaries1870https://www.ohchr.org2/12/2021 4:05:00 PMdocxFalsedocx11~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js
ZHOU-Zhanggui2135024/30/2021 1:22:00 PMthe current definition of mercenary, however, cyber mercenary is a quite new term and it is not sure yet whether it should be called cyber mercenaries or in other words STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FZHOU%2DZhanggui%2Edocx&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FZHOU%2DZhanggui%2Edocx&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/CyberMercenaries2750https://www.ohchr.org4/30/2021 1:22:00 PMdocxFalsedocx11~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js
Greece2134942/18/2021 10:16:00 AMor a group of individuals as “cyber-mercenaries”, and for this reason their identity as well as their motivation in case of cyber war activities may be difficult to clarify STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FGreece%2Edocx&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FGreece%2Edocx&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/CyberMercenaries300https://www.ohchr.org2/18/2021 10:16:00 AMdocxFalsedocx11~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js
Surveillance study1432476/26/2019 4:26:00 PMsociety stakeholders on bring about an cyber security approach that ensures human rights The argument for cyber security is underpinned by the need for new legal measures that STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FOpinion%2FSurveillance%2FBATSIRAI%20MADONDO%2Edocx&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FOpinion%2FSurveillance%2FBATSIRAI%20MADONDO%2Edocx&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Opinion/Surveillance1924 The case The General Data Protection Regulation is made due to argument on how complex understanding of privacy is understood from various from European Union member state to state data sharing within the European Union jurisdiction. The Centrum for Rattvisa v. Sweden is a complex case understanding within the context EU Fundamental Human of Rights Article 8 the right to privacy is in contrast to surveillance for security purposes. European Union interpretants privacy as a fundamental human right and the GDPR Article 50 as a means of giving the people their human rights. An argument is therefore made on how the EU views privacy and data security more rigorously than the United States, Canada and Mexico.Kosseff (2017) the European Commission has to determine adequate protection for personal data by evaluating of nation’s rule of law respect for human rights, data protection regulation and international commitment to personal data. ;Privacy by Design (PbD) is interpreted too narrowly The European Union legal regime as revelled by the study has been interpreted too narrowly which could negatively affect online business purchases. The terms of privacy and data protection are interchangeable. Data minimisation has been linked to strong focus on reductionist view of privacy. Privacy by design is a technical approach which takes into consideration the state of the art technology to cover human rights, freedom of expression and protection from discrimination issues. ;Hence the need for the technical systematic specification from which need to caveat by legislation when privacy is invaded technically. General Data Protection Regulation Article 25 (3) An approach for takes in consideration certification pursuant to Article 42 based on demonstrating compliance with requirements as set out in (1) and (2) The need for privacy by design (PbD) as a remedy to invation of privacy and unwarranted surveillance has proven to be a initiative that could meet UN Guiding Priciples on Business and Human Rights. Privacy by design has highlighted the need for regulatory regimes that involve the private sector and state. This is evident for the need for Single Digital Market asymmetries between the public policy makers in the human rights dominance and technical commercial sector. The digital age has increased transnational technological growth in witness the need for pooling of legislative control of criminal activities and human rights violation.0https://www.ohchr.org6/26/2019 4:26:00 PMdocxFalsedocx11~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js
The-Citizen-Lab2135004/30/2021 2:13:26 PMand security products and services in cyber space by cyber mercenaries and related actors and its human STS_ListItem_DocumentLibraryhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FThe%2DCitizen%2DLab%2Epdf&action=interactivepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%2FDocuments%2FIssues%2FMercenaries%2FWG%2FCyberMercenaries%2FThe%2DCitizen%2DLab%2Epdf&action=imagepreviewhttps://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/CyberMercenaries1430https://www.ohchr.org4/30/2021 2:13:26 PMpdfFalsepdf31;1531~sitecollection/_catalogs/masterpage/Display Templates/Search/Item_Word.js

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